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此仓库是为了提升国内下载速度的镜像仓库,每日同步一次。 原始仓库: https://github.com/maas/maas
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.. -*- mode: rst -*-
Installing MAAS
===============
There are two main ways to install MAAS:
* :ref:`From a package repository. <pkg-install>`
* :ref:`As a fresh install from Ubuntu Server install
media. <disc-install>`
* :ref:`Install MAAS in a LXC Container. <container-install>`
MAAS Packages and Repositories
------------------------------
MAAS Packages
^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Installing MAAS from packages is straightforward. There are actually
several packages that go into making up a working MAAS install, but
for convenience, many of these have been gathered into a virtual
package called 'maas' which will install the necessary components
for a 'seed cloud', that is a single server that will directly
control a group of nodes. The main packages are:
* ``maas`` - seed cloud setup, which includes both the region
controller and the rack controller below.
* ``maas-region-controller`` - includes the web UI, API and database.
* ``maas-rack-controller`` - controls a group of machines under a
rack or multiple racks, including DHCP management.
* ``maas-dhcp``/``maas-dns`` - required when managing dhcp/dns.
* ``maas-proxy`` - required to provide a MAAS proxy.
If you need to separate these services or want to deploy an additional
rack controller, you should install the corresponding packages
individually (see :ref:`the description of a typical setup <setup>`
for more background on how a typical hardware setup might be
arranged).
There are two suggested additional packages 'maas-dhcp' and
'maas-dns'. These set up MAAS-controlled DHCP and DNS services which
greatly simplify deployment if you are running a typical setup where
the MAAS controller can run the network (Note: These **must** be
installed if you later set the options in the web interface to have
MAAS manage DHCP/DNS).
MAAS Package Repositories
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
While MAAS is available in the Ubuntu Archives per each release of
Ubuntu, the version might not be the latest. However, if you would like
to install a newer version of MAAS (the latest stable release), this is
available in the following PPA:
* `ppa:maas/stable`_
.. Note::
The MAAS team also releases the latest development release of MAAS.
The development release is available in `ppa:maas/next`_. However, this
is meant to be used for testing and at your own risk.
Adding MAAS package repository is simple. At the command line, type::
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:maas/stable
You will be asked to confirm whether you would like to add this repository,
and its key. Upon configumation, the following needs to be typed at the
command line::
$ sudo apt-get update
.. _ppa:maas/stable:
https://launchpad.net/~maas/+archive/ubuntu/stable
.. _ppa:maas/next:
https://launchpad.net/~maas/+archive/ubuntu/next
.. _pkg-install:
Installing MAAS from the command line
-------------------------------------
Installing a Single Node MAAS
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
At the command line, type::
$ sudo apt-get install maas
This will install both the MAAS Region Controller and the MAAS Rack
Controller, and will select sane defaults for the communication between
the Rack Controller and the Region Controller. After installation,
you can access the Web Interface. Then, there are just a few more setup
steps :ref:`post_install`
Reconfiguring a MAAS Installation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
You will see a list of packages and a confirmation message to
proceed. The exact list will obviously depend on what you already have
installed on your server, but expect to add about 200MB of files.
The configuration for the MAAS controller will automatically run and
pop up this config screen:
.. image:: media/install_cluster-config.*
Here you will need to enter the hostname for where the region
controller can be contacted. In many scenarios, you may be running the
region controller (i.e. the web and API interface) from a different
network address, for example where a server has several network
interfaces.
Adding Rack Controllers
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
If you would like to add additional MAAS Rack Controllers to your
MAAS setup, you can do so by following the instructions in
:doc:`rack-configuration`.
.. _disc-install:
Installing MAAS from Ubuntu Server boot media
---------------------------------------------
If you are installing MAAS as part of a fresh install it is easiest to
choose the "Multiple Server install with MAAS" option from the
installer and have pretty much everything set up for you. Boot from
the Ubuntu Server media and you will be greeted with the usual
language selection screen:
.. image:: media/install_01.*
On the next screen, you will see there is an entry in the menu called
"Multiple server install with MAAS". Use the cursor keys to select
this and then press Enter.
.. image:: media/install_02.*
The installer then runs through the usual language and keyboard
options. Make your selections using Tab/Cursor keys/Enter to proceed
through the install. The installer will then load various drivers,
which may take a moment or two.
.. image:: media/install_03.*
The next screen asks for the hostname for this server. Choose
something appropriate for your network.
.. image:: media/install_04.*
Finally we get to the MAAS part! Here there are just two options. We
want to "Create a new MAAS on this server" so go ahead and choose that
one.
.. image:: media/install_05.*
The install now continues as usual. Next you will be prompted to enter
a username. This will be the admin user for the actual server that
MAAS will be running on (not the same as the MAAS admin user!)
.. image:: media/install_06.*
As usual you will have the chance to encrypt your home
directory. Continue to make selections based on whatever settings suit
your usage.
.. image:: media/install_07.*
After making selections and partitioning storage, the system software
will start to be installed. This part should only take a few minutes.
.. image:: media/install_09.*
Various packages will now be configured, including the package manager
and update manager. It is important to set these up appropriately so
you will receive timely updates of the MAAS server software, as well
as other essential services that may run on this server.
.. image:: media/install_10.*
The configuration for MAAS will ask you to configure the host address
of the server. This should be the IP address you will use to connect
to the server (you may have additional interfaces e.g. to run node
subnets)
.. image:: media/install_cluster-config.*
The next screen will confirm the web address that will be used to the
web interface.
.. image:: media/install_controller-config.*
After configuring any other packages the installer will finally come
to and end. At this point you should eject the boot media.
.. image:: media/install_14.*
After restarting, you should be able to login to the new server with
the information you supplied during the install. The MAAS software
will run automatically.
.. image:: media/install_15.*
**NOTE:** The maas-dhcp and maas-dns packages should be installed by
default, but on older releases of MAAS they won't be. If you want to
have MAAS run DHCP and DNS services, you should install these packages.
Check whether they are installed with::
$ dpkg -l maas-dhcp maas-dns
If they are missing, then::
$ sudo apt-get install maas-dhcp maas-dns
And then proceed to the post-install setup.
.. _container-install:
Installing MAAS in a LXC container
----------------------------------
Installing MAAS in a container is a typical setup for those users who
would like to take advantange of their machine for other users at the
same time of using MAAS.
In order to setup MAAS, you need some requirements:
* Create a bridge (for example, it can be br0).
* Install LXD and ZFS.
* Create a Container profile for MAAS
Install LXD and ZFS
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The first thing to do is to install LXD and ZFS::
$ sudo apt-get install lxd zfsutils-linux
$ sudo modprobe zfs
$ sudo lxd init
Create a LXC profile for MAAS
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
First, create a container profile for MAAS::
$ lxc profile create maas
Second, bind the NIC inside the container (eth0) against the bridge on the
physical host (br0)::
$ lxc profile device set maas eth0 parent br0
Finally, create a root disk for the container to use::
$ lxc profile device add maas root disk path=/ pool=default
Launch LXD container
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Once the profile has been created, you can now launch the LXC container::
$ lxc launch -p maas ubuntu-daily:18.04 bionic-maas
Install MAAS
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Once the container is running, you can now install MAAS. First you need
to access the container with::
$ lxc exec bionic-maas bash
And you can proceed with the installation as above, :ref:`From a package repository. <pkg-install>`
.. _post_install:
Post-Install tasks
==================
Your MAAS is now installed, but there are a few more things to be done.
If you now use a web browser to connect to the region controller, you
should see that MAAS is running, but there will also be some errors on
the screen:
.. image:: media/install_web-init.*
The on screen messages will tell you that there are no boot images
present, and that you can't login because there is no admin user.
Create a superuser account
--------------------------
Once MAAS is installed, you'll need to create an administrator
account::
$ sudo maas createadmin --username=root --email=MYEMAIL@EXAMPLE.COM
Substitute your own email address for MYEMAIL@EXAMPLE.COM. You may also
use a different username for your administrator account, but "root" is a
common convention and easy to remember. The command will prompt for a
password to assign to the new user.
You can run this command again for any further administrator accounts you
may wish to create, but you need at least one.
Log in on the server
--------------------
Looking at the region controller's main web page again, you should now see
a login screen. Log in using the user name and password which you have just
created.
.. image:: media/install-login.*
Import the boot images
----------------------
Since version 1.7, MAAS stores the boot images in the region controller's
database, from where the rack controllers will synchronise with the region
and pull images from the region to the rack's local disk. This process
is automatic and MAAS will check for and download new Ubuntu images every hour.
However, on a new installation you'll need to start the import process manually
once you have set up your MAAS region controller. There are two ways to start
the import: through the web user interface, or through the remote API.
To do it in the web user interface, go to the Images tab, check the boxes to
say which images you want to import, and click the "Import images" button at
the bottom of the Ubuntu section.
.. image:: media/import-images.*
A message will appear to let you know that the import has started, and after a
while, the warnings about the lack of boot images will disappear.
It may take a long time, depending on the speed of your Internet connection for
import process to complete, as the images are several hundred megabytes. The
import process will only download images that have changed since last import.
You can check the progress of the import by hovering over the spinner next to
each image.
The other way to start the import is through the
:ref:`region-controller API <region-controller-api>`, which you can invoke most
conveniently through the :ref:`command-line interface <cli>`.
To do this, connect to the MAAS API using the "maas" command-line client.
See :ref:`Logging in <api-key>` for how to get set up with this tool. Then,
run the command::
$ maas my-maas-session boot-resources import
(Substitute a different profile name for 'my-maas-session' if you have named
yours something else.) This will initiate the download, just as if you had
clicked "Import images" in the web user interface.
By default, the import is configured to download the most recent LTS release
only for the amd64 architecture. Although this should suit most needs, you can
change the selections on the Images tab, or over the API. Read
:doc:`customise boot sources </bootsources>` to see examples on how to do that.
Speeding up repeated image imports by using a local mirror
----------------------------------------------------------
See :doc:`sstreams-mirror` for information on how to set up a mirror and
configure MAAS to use it.
Configure DHCP
--------------
To enable MAAS to control DHCP, you can either:
#. Follow the instructions at :doc:`rack-configuration` to
use the web UI to set up your rack controller.
#. Use the command line interface `maas` by first
:ref:`logging in to the API <api-key>` and then
:ref:`following this procedure <cli-dhcp>`
Configure switches on the network
---------------------------------
Some switches use Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) to negotiate a loop-free path
through a root bridge. While scanning, it can make each port wait up to 50
seconds before data is allowed to be sent on the port. This delay in turn can
cause problems with some applications/protocols such as PXE, DHCP and DNS, of
which MAAS makes extensive use.
To alleviate this problem, you should enable `Portfast`_ for Cisco switches
or its equivalent on other vendor equipment, which enables the ports to come
up almost immediately.
.. _Portfast:
https://www.symantec.com/business/support/index?page=content&id=HOWTO6019
Traffic between the region contoller and rack controllers
------------------------------------------------------------
* Each rack controller must be able to:
* Initiate TCP connections (for HTTP) to each region controller on
port 80 or port 5240, the choice of which depends on the setting of
the MAAS URL.
* Initiate TCP connections (for RPC) to each region controller between
port 5250 and 5259 inclusive. This permits up to 10 ``maas-regiond``
processes on each region controller host. At present this is not
configurable.
Once everything is set up and running, you are ready to :doc:`start
enlisting nodes <nodes>`

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